34CrNiMo6 alloy steel is a medium-carbon low-alloy steel with a good balance between strength, ductility, and toughness. This alloy steel is used in several transportation, automotive, and aerospace applications. It is also used to make structural parts due to its excellent properties. Let's take a closer look at this special alloy steel.
The term 34CrNiMo6 is a designation of a particular type of alloy steel. Here is the breakdown of the designation:
"34" refers to the nominal carbon content in steel, approximately 0.34%.
"Cr" stands for chromium, one of the alloying elements in steel. It contributes to the steel's hardenability and corrosion resistance.
"Ni" stands for nickel, another alloying element in steel. It provides the steel with toughness, ductility, and high-temperature strength.
"Mo" stands for molybdenum, yet another alloying element in steel. It improves the steel's hardenability and high-temperature strength.
The "6" at the end of the designation indicates that the steel is a low-alloy steel containing a minimum of 0.10% of one or more alloying elements other than carbon, such as chromium, nickel, molybdenum, or vanadium.
The manufacturing process typically involves the following steps:
Melting: Melting the raw materials in an electric arc furnace. The furnace is charged with scrap iron and alloying elements such as nickel, chromium, and molybdenum.
Refining: The molten steel is then refined to remove any impurities that may affect the mechanical properties of the final product. The refining process involves degassing, desulfurization, and dephosphorization.
Casting: The refined steel is then cast into billets, bars, flats, plates, or forgings, depending on the desired final product.
Heat treatment: The castings are heat-treated to achieve the desired mechanical properties. The heat treatment process typically involves quenching and tempering, which involves heating the castings to a high temperature and then rapidly cooling them in a quenching medium, such as water or oil. The castings are then tempered at a lower temperature to achieve the desired hardness and toughness.
Machining and finishing: The final step in the manufacturing process involves machining and finishing the castings into the desired final product shape. This may involve cutting, grinding, polishing, or other finishing processes to achieve the desired dimensions, surface finish, and mechanical properties.
The chemical composition of 34CrNiMo6 alloy steel consists of
0.32 - 0.39% Carbon (C)
0.90 - 1.20% Manganese (Mn)
0.50% Silicon (Si),
1.10 - 1.40% Chromium (Cr)
0.035% Phosphorus (P)
0.035% Sulfur (S)
0.30 - 0.60% Nickel (Ni), and 1 - 1.4 % Molybdenum (Mo).
It also contains trace amounts of Iron and other elements such as Copper, Vanadium, and Titanium as impurities or inclusions, which are added during the manufacturing process to provide additional strength and wear resistance properties to the material composition.
High Tensile Strength - 1000 - 1300 N/mm²
Good Forgeability & machinability
Good hardenability with uniform hardness distribution across the section thicknesses
Corrosion Resistance when exposed to atmospheric conditions or acidic environments
Europe - EN 1.6582
Germany - DIN 1.6582
United States - AISI 4337/ UNS G43370
Japan - JIS SNCM447
China - GB/T 3077
Gears: 34CrNiMo6 is an excellent material for gears that require high strength and toughness, such as those used in the automotive and industrial machinery industries.
Crankshafts: 34CrNiMo6 is a popular material for crankshafts in heavy-duty engines, providing high strength and fatigue resistance.
Axle shafts: 34CrNiMo6 is a preferred material for axle shafts in heavy-duty trucks and other vehicles that require high strength and wear resistance.
Turbine shafts: 34CrNiMo6 is often used to manufacture turbine shafts that require high strength and resistance to fatigue and corrosion.
Round Bars: 34CrNiMo6 round bars can be welded using various welding techniques, making it versatile for fabricating various parts and components.
Machine parts: 34CrNiMo6 is used in a wide range of machine parts, such as bearings, studs, bolts, and screws that require high strength and toughness.
The global market for 34CrNiMo6 is expected to grow in the coming years, driven by the increasing demand for high-performance materials in various industries. Europe is a significant market for 34CrNiMo6, with countries like Germany, France, and Italy being the primary consumers of this material. The Asia Pacific region is also a significant market, with countries like China, Japan, and India being major consumers. North America and South America also have a large market for 34CrNiMo6.